CRediT (Contributor Roles Taxonomy)
is a high-level taxonomy, including 14 roles, that can be used to represent the roles typically played by contributors to scientific scholarly output. The roles describe each contributor’s specific contribution to the scholarly output.
Each of the 14 terms for contributor roles has a resolving URI! Example: http://credit.niso.org/contributor-roles/conceptualization/.
There is also guidance for its use in Journal Article Tag Suite (JATS) XML.
I think this is a nice example of a minimal yet useful dictionary that a dataset could leverage: no formal-relation links between terms, but all terms are resolvable URIs.