thermophoretic force

Hi Dear all

I want to simulate the argon-copper nanofluid in a nanochannel with temperature gradient. My question is that the thermophoretic and brownian forces are considered in the newton’s law with MD simulation or we must consider and apply these forces as external forces?

I don’t quite understand the question. Brownian forces can be added with a fix like fix langevin or, if your nanofluid contains explicit solvent molecules/particles, then there should be Brownian motion as a result from their collisions. As for thermophoresis, I have no idea.